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Analog Amplifiers

When configuring a component system, no single signal processing module is more important to choose correctly than the amplifier. Ultimately, it is the amplifier whose gain range, shaping time constants, low-noise design and other characteristics, must be well chosen for the particular type of detector being used, and the application being addressed.

This section lists numerous specialty and spectroscopy-grade amplifiers which may be used to satisfy a wide variety of applications. Many of their characteristics are discussed below.

Products in category

Model 2015B AMP/TSCA

Model 2015B AMP/TSCA

Description

The CANBERRA Model 2015B combines, in one single width module, a spectroscopy amplifier with gated baseline restoration and a timing single channel pulse height analyzer.

The 2015B amplifier employs a simple gated baseline restorer which, because of its symmetrical characteristic, provides high resolution for HPGe detectors at low and high counting rates.

Although it is a high performance instrument, the Model 2015B is also very versatile. It has all the characteristics necessary to make it useful with scintillation detectors, gas proportional counters, and silicon detectors. High gain, low noise, selectable time constants, and count rate optimization are several of the more important features designed into the amplifier of the Model 2015B.

The utility of the Model 2015B derives from the dual function of its pulse height analyzer circuitry. In the SCA mode of operation, a logic signal output is generated whenever the amplifier unipolar signal falls between the energy levels determined by the front panel controls (E and ΔE). This mode is especially useful when a wide dynamic range is required.

In the Timing (TSCA) mode the same logic signal is generated, but it is referenced in time relative to the leading edge of the preamp signal. This provides a signal that is useful in applications requiring time coincidence.

In addition to the SCA OUTPUT, the Model 2015B also provides a multifunction capability which can be programmed internally to provide a lower level (E) Discriminator Output, or an upper level DISCriminator (E + ΔE) Output or to provide an external input level for remote control of the lower level discriminator.

Precise repeatable performance is designed and built into the 2015B. The front panel variable controls of the Model 2015B are precision ten-turn potentiometers. The precision of the ΔE window setting can be further enhanced by use of rear panel sensitivity selector switch (ΔE Range). A front panel LED indicator is provided to assist in set up and troubleshooting. The LED is activated from the lower level discriminator and is useful for setting the discriminator just above the noise.

Model 2015B AMP/TSCA

Features

  • Spectroscopy grade amplifier with high count rate restoration
  • Timing single channel analyzer with:
    • SCA and LLD or ULD outputs
    • LLD threshold indicator for easy set-up
    • Preamp leading edge timing
  • Designed for use with proportional counters, NaI(Tl), Ge, and Si detectors
Model 2022A Spectroscopy Amplifier

Model 2022A Spectroscopy Amplifier

Description

The Model 2022A Spectroscopy Amplifier offers excellent resolution performance in a low cost, single width NIM module. CANBERRA’s well known filter shaping provides improved pulse symmetry, minimum sensitivity of output amplitude to variations in detector rise time, and maximum signal to noise ratio. Unipolar shaping is achieved with one differentiator and two active filter integrators. The differentiator is placed early in the amplifier to ensure good overload recovery. The integrators are placed late to minimize noise contribution from the gain stages. The amplifier offers six front panel selectable pulse shaping time constants: 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 µs.

The Model 2022A employs CANBERRA’s unique baseline restorer for optimum performance with high resolution detector systems. The gated baseline restorer automatically adjusts the restoration rate and threshold optimizing performance to the incoming count rate and system noise level. An internal jumper plug facilitates symmetrical or asymmetrical restoration.

Simultaneous unipolar and bipolar outputs are available at both front and rear panel BNC connectors. The unipolar signal is used for spectral analysis. The bipolar output can be used for counting, timing, or gating.

The Model 2022A solid dc stability and low noise combine to provide a high performance spectroscopy amplifier in a single width NIM module.

Model 2022A Spectroscopy Amplifier

Features

  • Six front panel selectable shaping time constants
  • Noise ≤4.0 µV RMS referred to input, gain ≥100 and 2 µs shaping
  • Drift ≤±10 µV dc/°C
  • Active baseline restorer for optimum performance
Model 2024A Fast Spectroscopy Amplifier

Model 2024A Fast Spectroscopy Amplifier

Description

The CANBERRA Model 2024A Spectroscopy Amplifier offers the modern spectroscopist the performance, features, and flexibility demanded for high resolution, high count rate detector systems today. Functionally, the Model 2024A provides in a double-width NIM an exceptional spectroscopy amplifier, a gated integrator, a gated active baseline restorer, a pulse pileup rejector and a live time corrector.

CANBERRA’s near-Gaussian filter shaping is optimized for improved pulse symmetry, minimum sensitivity to variations in detector rise time, and maximum signal to noise ratio. The improved pulse symmetry minimizes overall pulse width for a given shaping time constant, resulting in superior energy resolution, count rate, and throughput performance. Unipolar shaping is achieved with one differentiator and two active filter integrators and offers six front panel switch selectable pulse SHAPING time constants: 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 µs.

The 2024A includes a Gated Integrator which minimizes spectrum broadening at the shorter amplifier shaping time constants, which is essential for high data throughput rates. The Gated Integrator integrates the entire unipolar signal, providing a properly scaled linear output signal without the resolution degrading problems normally associated with fast amplifier shaping times and long detector charge-collection times, an effect known as ballistic deficit. This effect is most pronounced for large volume detectors and with amplifier shaping times of less than 1 µs.

Model 2024A Fast Spectroscopy Amplifier

Features

  • Unipolar, bipolar, and gated integrator outputs
  • Gated Integrator optimizes resolution vs. throughput
  • Compatible with RC and pulsed reset preamps
  • Gated baseline restorer with automatic tuning
  • Selectable baseline restorer symmetry
  • Pileup rejection and live time correction
  • Cosmic overload rejection
Model 2025 AFT Research Amplifier

Model 2025 AFT Research Amplifier

Description

The Model 2025 Automatic Fine Tuning (AFT) Research Amplifier represents the latest in spectroscopy amplifier design and includes all the features associated with a research grade signal processor: differential inputs for common mode noise rejection, wide gain range with Super Fine Gain (SFG) control, choice of semi-Gaussian or semi-triangular pulse shaping to meet most detector applications and requirements, a flexible Baseline Restorer and an integral Pileup Rejector and Live Time Corrector.

Although some of these features are available in other amplifiers, the Model 2025 goes a step further with Automatic Fine Tuning (AFT) which makes the unit easy to set up and use. With the AFT circuit activated, critical performance adjustments are automatically optimized eliminating the subjectiveness and guesswork normally associated with manual fine tuning. The results are consistent and repeatable, and nearly operator independent.

With the Model 2025 there is no need for an oscilloscope to optimize pole/zero (P/Z) matching. The operator simply starts the optimization process by pressing the AUTO SET button. The BUSY LED lights and the P/Z matching circuit begins converging on the optimal setting required for good high count rate resolution, peak stability and overload recovery. When the process is complete the BUSY LED turns off.

Model 2025 AFT Research Amplifier

Features

  • Automatic fine tuning of critical parameters: Pole/Zero Matching, BLR Rate, BLR Threshold, PUR Threshold
  • Gaussian and triangular shaping
  • Differential input
  • Front panel common mode balance control
  • Super Fine Gain (SFG) control
  • Pileup rejector and live time corrector
  • Automatic reset preamplifier mode
Model 2026 Spectroscopy Amplifier

Model 2026 Spectroscopy Amplifier

Description

The Model 2026 amplifier provides the features and performance of a research amplifier in an easy to use single width NIM module. Now you can have the flexibility you need without the amplifier set-up and adjustment aggravation you don't need.

The Model 2026 lets you select either Gaussian or Triangular pulse shaping for the Unipolar output with a convenient front panel switch. In addition, it offers a choice of six front panel switch-selectable shaping time constants for each of the pulse shaping methods. This direct control of both the shaping method and time constants lets you select the configuration that will optimize resolution and throughput performance based on your application.

The 2026's Pileup Rejector/Live Time Corrector (PUR/LTC) circuitry allows quantitative gamma analysis with minimal dependence on system count rate. The PUR circuit interrogates incoming pulses for pile up and generates a signal that prevents the ADC from converting the piled up events. The LTC circuit then generates a system dead time that extends the collection time to compensate for the events lost due to pileup rejection. The result: lower background, better resolution and accurate live time information for the best possible analysis results.

But don't worry about setting up this amplifier. Many of the 2026's features are self-adjusting so you get the performance you need and a trouble-free setup. The 2026 automatically adjusts the PUR threshold just above your system noise level, insuring PUR efficiency and minimizing the spectral distortion caused by pile up at high count rates. The restoration rate and threshold of the gated baseline restorer are also automatically optimized for both low and high count rate applications. With all these automatic features the 2026 gives you consistently better data for your activity calculations, regardless of the count rate, the application or the operator.

The 2026 lets you position peaks precisely and easily with its Super Fine Gain (SFG) control. The SFG provides gain resolution better than 1 in 16 000 (0.00625%), allowing greater precision for more accurate peak location in less time. This feature is now a requirement, instead of a luxury, for most spectroscopy systems. This is especially true in applications using detector arrays in which the inputs from several detectors must be combined into a single spectrum.

The excellent overload recovery characteristics of the 2026 make it ideal for use with today's high throughput reset preamplifiers such as the CANBERRA 2101 Transistor Reset Preamplifier. This allows you to assemble a high resolution spectroscopy system without the energy rate limitations normally associated with RC preamplifiers.

The Model 2026's wide gain range allows you to use it with a wide range of detectors including germanium, silicon, scintillation, proportional counters or pulsed ion chambers. The versatility of the 2026 is further enhanced by a bipolar output for use in timing and gating applications.

Model 2026 Spectroscopy Amplifier

Features

  • Gaussian/Triangular shaping
  • Super fine gain control
  • Pileup rejector and live time corrector
  • Automatic baseline recovery rate and threshold
  • Differential input
  • Excellent overload recovery
  • Compact single width NIM
Model 9615 ICB Programmable Spectroscopy Amplifier

Model 9615 ICB Programmable Spectroscopy Amplifier

Description

The Model 9615 Amplifier represents the latest in a programmable spectroscopy amplifier design and includes all the features associated with a research grade signal processor. Part of CANBERRA's Instrument Control Bus (ICB) line of programmable front end electronics, this Genie Controlled Amplifier features: differential inputs for common mode noise rejection, wide gain range, choice of semi-Gaussian or semi-Triangular pulse shaping to meet most detector applications and requirements, a flexible Baseline Restorer and an integral Pileup Rejector (PUR) and Live Time Corrector (LTC).

The Model 9615 features Automatic Fine Tuning (AFT), which combined with computer control, makes the unit easy to set up and use. Critical performance adjustments are automatically optimized, eliminating the subjectiveness and guesswork normally associated with manual fine tuning. The results are consistent and repeatable, and nearly operator independent.

With the Model 9615 there is no need for an oscilloscope to optimize pole/zero (P/Z) matching: the operator simply starts the optimization process from the computer. The P/Z BUSY LED lights and the matching circuit begins converging on the optimal setting required for good high count rate resolution, peak stability and overload recovery. When the process is complete, the P/Z BUSY LED turns off and the computer stores the latest P/Z setting.

The P/Z BUSY LED will blink and the computer will be signaled if convergence is not achieved within two minutes. When power is turned ON, the LED will blink until the computer loads the P/Z setting or initiates another convergence.

The PUR threshold is automatically set just above the system noise level, insuring PUR efficiency and minimal spectral distortion due to pile up at high count rates. The restoration rate and threshold are automatically fine tuned for all shapings, gain and count rate conditions.

The Model 9615 employs three active complex-pole filters for improved pulse symmetry, reduced pulse dwell time and high throughput. For additional flexibility, semi-Gaussian or semi-Triangular pulse shaping are selectable.

Triangular shaping offers superior energy resolution due to its inherently longer rise time, better signal to noise ratio and reduced sensitivity to detector rise time variations. The Amplifier offers six switch-selectable shaping time constants, which effectively doubles to 12 when the choice of Gaussian and Triangular are both considered, allowing optimum matching for most detector and count rate requirements. This switch is located on the rear panel of this dual-width NIM module to avoid any casual operator intervention. Although a manual adjustment, the setting is read your Genie software to insure proper operation.

The gated baseline restorer with automatic rate and threshold assures the best possible low and high count rate resolution performance. The flexibility of the baseline restorer is further enhanced with programmed Asymmetrical and Symmetrical restorer modes. The Asymmetrical mode virtually eliminates charge accumulation and correlated noise on the restorer holding capacitor and is especially suited for use with high resolution detector systems. The Symmetrical mode allows performance optimization for detector systems which exhibit baseline discontinuities resulting from excessive noise, microphonics, high voltage effects, and preamplifier secondary time constants.

The Model 9615 has a differential input stage which can be used to suppress noise caused by ground loops, laboratory environment EMI and the resultant noise pick-up on cables and so forth. It is especially useful for applications which require long cables between the detector/preamplifier and amplifier. As with most other CANBERRA amplifiers, cable transformers are included in the Model 9615 to suppress high frequency noise normally associated with personal computer and MCA raster-type displays. A Common Mode Balance (CMB) control is conveniently located on the front panel allowing common mode rejection optimization for the specific application.

The Live Time Corrector and Pileup Rejector circuit allows quantitative gamma analysis nearly independent of system count rate. Special circuitry interrogates for pile up and permits the ADC to convert only those detector signals resulting from single energy events. To compensate for rejected pulses and pulse processing times, the Model 9615 generates a system dead time which extends the collection time by the appropriate amount. The front panel ACCEPT/REJECT LED indicates pileup rejector status.

The Model 9615 accepts programming information over an 8-bit wide CANBERRA bus standard called the Instrument Control Bus (ICB). ICB NIMs connect to this bus via a host module such as the Model 556A Acquisition Interface Module (AIM) as part of a hierarchy of networked acquisition and control managed by a Genie Family computing platform.

Adjustments are made through the graphical user interface of the Genie software environments. Equivalent batch procedure commands are also available in the environments. All ICB NIM parameters are stored in the single data file structure of the Genie family, allowing verification of correct set up from one experiment to the next.

All ICB NIMs feature a characteristic READY LED to indicate operational status.

Model 9615 ICB Programmable Spectroscopy Amplifier

Features

  • Complete programmability within the Genie™ family
  • Uses the CANBERRA Instrument Control Bus (ICB)
  • Automatic fine tuning of critical parameters: Pole/Zero matching, BLR rate, BLR threshold, PUR threshold
  • Gaussian/Triangular shaping
  • Differential input
  • Front panel common mode balance control
  • Pileup rejector and live time corrector
  • Secure computer operation without conflicting front panel controls